..........Contact me at Mom25dogs@gmail.com.........

Contact me at Mom25dogs@gmail.com

Thursday, February 08, 2018

Samuel Jones Kirby

Samuel Jones Kirby was born 11/23/1885 in South Carolina to Larkin Jones Kirby (DOB 4/15/1852 in NC; DOD 7/13/1922 in Hillsborough County, Florida, USA) and Emily Catherine "Katie" Mabe (DOB 7/16/1859 in Virginia; DOD 7/20/1920 in Hillsborough County, Florida, USA). Larkin J. Kirby and Katie Mabe had Robert L. Kirby, Zebulon Bard Kirby, Maria Kirby, David Franklin Kirby, Marshall Murr Kirby, John M. Kirby.

Samuel J. Kirby married Lula Asbury Norket (DOB 4/6/1896 in Union County, NC; DOD 7/23/1939 in Mecklenburg County, NC). She was born to Mitchell Michael Norket (DOB 3/1844 in NC; DOD ? in ? ) and Mollie Unknown (DOB 1874 in NC; DOD ? in ? ). Mitchell Norket had been married first to Martha Jane Honeycutt (aka Martha Jane Huneycutt). This is where it attached to my tree. My maiden name is Huneycutt. So S.J. Kirby and his wife, Lula Asbury Norket are not blood related to me but I found this story while researching on my Huneycutt line, .

S.J. Kirby and Lula Asbury Norket had a daughter, Ethel Joie Kirby (aka Ethel Joye Kirby, Ethel Joy Kirby) who was born 10/6/1910 in Cabarrus County, NC.

1920 U.S. Census of Ninth Street, Columbia, Richland County, SC, Roll: T625_1707; Page: 13A; Enumeration District: 98, Lines 19-22, "S.J. Kirby"
S.J. Kirby, Head, Rented home, M(ale), W(hite), 34 yrs old (DOB 1886), Married, Can read and write, Born in Minnesota, Both parents born in Minn, Insurance Salesman
Lula Kirby, Wife, F, W, 25 yrs old (DOB 1895), Married, Can read and write, Born in NC, Both parents born in NC, Weaver at cotton mill
Ella Kirby (sic, Ethel), Daughter, F, W, 10 yrs old (DOB 1910), Single, Attends school, Can read and write, Born in SC, Mother born in NC, Father born in MN
Mollie Norket, Mother-in-law, F, W, 65 yrs old (DOB 1855), Widowed, Can read and write, Born in NC, Both parents born in NC

Samuel J. Kirby only had one arm. It was suggested in one newspaper interview that he lost it in an accident when he tried to jump a train for a free ride. There was another accident as well that gave him a serious head injury and his wife claimed he had a silver plate in his head. She would later claim that he experienced periods of insanity but the doctors who examined him said he was sane. It seems he was a trouble maker and a brutal man. Here are the newspaper reports I found on him.

The first one I found was this one in 1915 where he was accused of beating his daughter, chaining her in the yard and shooting at her!

Yorkville Enquirer, York, SC, 8/24/1915, Pg 2
Rock Hill Record, Aug. 23: S.J. Kirby, a one-armed white man who lives in the Highland Park mill village, was arrested last week by Constable Allen on a warrant sworn out before Magistrate Wingate for cruelty to his child. The case was called before Magistrate Wingate this morning, but Kirby asked for change of venue, making affidavit that he did not believe he could get a fair trial before Wingate on account of his (Mr. Wingate) having formed and expressed an opinion on the matter. (Mr. Wingate having seen the child after the beating.) Mr. Wingate granted the change and it is supposed that the matter will come up before Magistrate Glenn of Ebenezer. It is stated that Kirby beat his little six-year-old girl most terribly and the next day chained her to a block and made her get out and sweep the back yard while he sat on the steps with a rifle and told her if she did not sweep he would shoot her in the feet. In fact Constable Allen informs us that Kirby acknowledged to him and others that he did shoot into the yard, but was not shooting at the child.


Next he is convicted of robbery and sentenced to the penitentiary.

Fort Mills Times, Fort Mills, SC, 12/23/1915, Pg 1
Herring and Kirby Sentenced
Lester Herring and S.J. Kirby, the two white men convicted last Monday of robbing Jesse Jarrell in Rock Hill in November, were sentenced by Judge Rice Thursday, Kirby being sent to the penitentiary for two years and Herring to the county chaingang for a like period of time.

Fort Mills Times, Fort Mills, SC, 11/1/1917, Pg 3
Governor Manning a few days ago granted a parole to S.J. Kirby, a York county man who was given two years in the penitentiary for robbery and larceny in this county in 1915. Before beginning his sentence Kirby had remained in jail for a few months and the parole was issued in accordance with the recommendations of the judge and solicitor in order that he might receive credit for the time he stayed in jail before he was sentenced.


A few years later, he and two buddies kill a taxi cab driver. Jesse James Gappins, Casy Otis Fox and S.J. Kirby were put to death in the electric chair for this crime. Jesse James Gappins was the youngest being born 4/15/1899 in Georgia and he was married Liz Clark. Casy Otis Fox was born 4/11/1890 in NC to James Fox and Sarah Huffman. Casey Fox was single at the time of his death and is buried at Stanley Creek, Gaston County, NC.
A 1921 checkered taxicab in front of the White House

The Newberry Weekly Herald, Newberry, SC, 9/16/1921, Pg 6
Members of Mob Back In Columbia
Action In Georgia Watched With Interest
Mother of Gappins Tells Sheriff Heise Of Conference Sunday-Officers Make No Move
The State, 12th.
Defeated in their attempt to storm the Richmond county jail at Augusta, Ga., and lunch C.O. Fox and Jesse Gappins, self-confessed murderers of William Brazell, 19 year old taxi driver, hundreds of Columbians, alleged members of the mob, returned to Columbia yesterday to wait further developments in Sheriff Plunkett's tour of Georgia in an effort to locate a jail in which to lodge the two prisoners, who were spirited from the Augusta prison a few hours before the masked men arrived to demand them. A few automobiles, loaded with men, said to be heavily armed, are still patroling roads leading into Columbia and Lexington and threats of mob violence, are still to be heard. "We'll wait until we get them," is apparently the opinion of the men concerned, according to persons known to have conversed with them since their return.
Sheriff Plunkett apparently was successful in eluding all members of the Columbia party, despite the fact that numbers o Columbia men had been in the Georgia city since early Wednesday afternoon, awaiting the arrival of darkness and of reinforcements. The sheriff in leaving the jail with his prisoners shortly after 10 o'clock was pursued by a car which had been parked a block from the jail all afternoon. This automobile is said to have returned to Columbia yesterday afternoon, it's driver reporting that, ignorant of the Georgia roads, he had lost the Augusta officers and two prisoners shortly after leaving Augusta. Plans had been made, it was said yesterday, had the raid on the Augusta jail proved successful to bring the two men back to the spot about three miles from Leesville, where the mutilated body of the young transfer driver was found, and there kill them.
Car to Savannah
When it was learned that the two men had been placed in the Savannah jail to be later moved elsewhere since the Savannah prison was already crowded beyond capacity cars are said to have been dispatched to Savannah to await the developments there, following the sheriff should he have made a dash to another jail.
Sheriff Alex Heise has had a long conference with the mother of Jesse Gappins, one of the two men now held in Georgia. Mrs. Gappins advancing the theory that S.J. Kirby, who confession led to the arrest of the three men, was the moving spirit behind the plot to kill young Brazell and take his car. Kirby visited her home to hold a long conference with Jesse Gappins Sunday afternoon. Mrs. Gappins said, the two men talking in secret for nearly two or three hours. Her son, after Kirby left the house, Mrs. Gappins told the sheriff, told her that he was going to leave on a trip that night and that he would write her in about two weeks and advising her in the meanwhile not to be worried. It was at this conference, Mrs. Gappins believes, that the murder-robbery plot was engineered and her son involved in the scheme.
Kirby has a particularly unsavory reputation among neighbors and county officers, and Sheriff Heise stated yesterday that it was his belief that when the entire truth was revealed that it would be found that Kirby was considerably more involved in the crime than was admitted in his confession. Kirby, in making his statement, told a story of how he had been forced by Fox and Gappins to secure the car, thinking that it was to be used to take the three men to "get some girls" near Lexington, Kirby engaged Brazell's car, he said, under compulsion and then drove to the Seaboard depot and picked up the other two men.
See Weak Link
This, officers think, is a weak link in his statement, absolving himself of blame of the killing, it being pointed out that there was nothing to have prevented him from making his escape from Gappins and Fox at the time. Kirby also had an opportunity, it is thought, to leave the car while the two men carried the body into the woods, as related in his confession. His having only one arm, it is contended, will also explain the alleged fact that he took no active part in the actual killing of the boy and the dragging of the body into the woods.
Kirby is known to have been paroled while serving a two year sentence for robbery and burglary in the penitentiary and at the time of the murder of Brazell was being watched by Sheriff Heise for alleged implication in burglaries in Columbia. He is said to have been educated for the ministry, later turning infidel. This last statement is denied at Kirby's residence, friends claiming that "he never let a day pass without reading his Bible."
"I don't care what they do with the three men," M.W. Brazell, father of the murdered boy, said yesterday. "Lynching would be too good for them and nothing that can be done will restore my boy to me. Nothing can make me satisfied; nothing can make me forget how he was killed." Mr. Brazell also gave it as his opinion that Kirby was as deeply involved as the other two men. Mr. Brazell thanked the various transfer drivers for the evidence of their friendship for his son. "I did not know Bill was so popular," he said. Practically every taxi driver and owner in the city attended the boy's funeral Wednesday afternoon, many also sending floral tributes.
Not Go After Men
No official announcement had been received in Columbia or Lexington from Sheriff Plunkett of his leaving the men in Savannah up to a late hour last night and neither Sheriff E.A.Roof of Lexington or Sheriff T. Alex Heise of Columbia is making plans to go to Savannah to relieve the Georgia officers of the burden of their two mob-sought prisoners.
Sheriff Roof stated last night that he was ignorant of the whereabouts of Sheriff Plunkett and the two prisoners, his only information on the subject being obtained from newspaper dispatches from Savannah, Ga. In the absence of official information, the sheriff said, he could make no move to either go for or to send for the two men. "Arrangements will be made, however," Sheriff Roof added, "to bring the two men back to South Carolina as soon as possible." The Lexington officer also expressed his regrets at the trouble caused Sheriff Plunkett, whom he praised highly for the enterprise shown in capturing the three men and later, preventing a probably lynching. "I was advised," Sheriff Roof said, "to leave the prisoners in Augusta, where it was thought they would be safe from the mob violence."
Sheriff Heise was also without information as to the place where the prisoners are being held and stated last night that he would make no move to bring them to South Carolina at present. Sheriff Heise will also be unable to attend the inquest in Leesville, being called to attend the funeral of Mose H. Mobley, Richland county treasurer, who died yesterday morning.
Two Prisoners Make Confessions
Kirby is at present under arrest in Columbia
The State
Augusta, Ga, Aug 11-After riding an entire night Sheriff J.T. Plunkett early this morning landed C.O. Fox and Jesse Gappins, held in connection with the killing of William Brazell, Columbia taxi driver in the Savannah jail, where they will remain until Sheriff Roof of Lexington county or Sheriff Heise of Richland county comes to take them back to South Carolina. The sheriff would not definitely declare this to be his course, but in his conversations as much was intimated.
He and his party of officers arrived back in Augusta this afternoon shortly before 6 o'clock. They had not slept nor eaten for many hours and were exhausted. The officers were T.E. Norris, deputy, and W.D. Roberts, chief county mechanic who started the case off by arresting S.J. Kirby.
The sheriff, describing the thrilling ride he had in eluding the spy car of the mob, said he soon left it far behind after his departure from Augusta. A Buick roadster with a South Carolina license number was noticed to be standing in the next block from the jail when the officers left with the prisoners at 10 o'clock last night. When the sheriff's car drove off the other car followed. Jailer Whittle and the other officers thought the sheriff had not seen the car following but learned yesterday he had. Roberts, at the wheel, confused the trailing car by taking the sheriff's directions to turn corners, double back and start over, until finally the spy car went up a wrong street in pursuit of a car containing negroes and the sheriff got away down the road. The pursuing car went back across Hamburg bridge and told members of the mob waiting there that the prisoners had been carried to the stockade, and for that reason the stockade was first visited.
Prevents Bloodshed
Had the prisoners not been taken away from the jail and "given a ride," there would have been much bloodshed after the mob arrived, for  the officers would not have given up their men until compelled to do so. The advantage of position would have been with the defenders. A barricade could have been thrown up just inside the main gate and on the stairs leading to the cell corridors, and two men with shotguns could have slain the invaders like sheep as they poured in the front door. They could have got to the cells above by no other route save the stairs and they would have perished in large numbers, even if they killed some of the officers, which would have been improbable if not impossible.
The only reason Sheriff Plunkett moved the men, he said yesterday, was to avoid all the tension incident to rumors of a mob for the next week. He declared he wished to avoid bloodshed so far as possible and certainly would not have given up without hurting someone. "He would have killed his best friends," a county officer said, "rather than deliver up a prisoner. It was his duty to hold."
With the delivery of the men to Chatham jail, Sheriff Plunkett believes his immediate responsibility ended. "If they get away," he asserted, "they will not have gotten away from me."
Mob Disintegrates
The whereabouts of the mob is unknown, for the simple fact that it is believed there is no mob. It has disintegrated upon failure to procure the men and hopelessness of the prospect of getting them later.
Upon the way to Savannah Wednesday night, the officers said, Fox and Gappins, both ? ? automobiles, declared in elated tones that the car of the sheriff "could sure travel." Each mile it burned up put the prisoners farther away from their would be lynchers, and their sympathies were all with the officers. Fox did not have much to say, the officers added, but Gappins did a lot of talking.
The sheriff expected some difficulty in lodging his prisoners in the jail, because of the crowded condition of the cells. He finally succeeded in having them installed after first having to put them in police headquarters lockup.
The sheriff obtained written confessions from Fox and Gappins that they murdered the boy Brazell. In Savannah, while waiting there, he wrote out confessions and the men signed them freely. They were exhibited to reporters here upon the sheriff's return and ? out previous confessions. Kirby has already confessed.
The sheriff will leave early this morning for Leesville, where the coroner's inquest will be held at 10 o'clock.
The State
Augusta, Ga., Aug 11-At 4:45 o'clock Thursday morning 150 men, said to be residents of Columbia, surrounded the Richmond county jail and a committee searched the premises, seeking Fox and Gappins. Earlier the same committee had searched the county stockade, by mistake, after surrounding the premises. At 5 o'clock the mob quietly dispersed when satisfied that the men sought were not incarcerated.
The State
York, Aug. 11-S.J. Kirby, held in the state penitentiary in Columbia in connection with the killing of William Brazell, young taxi driver, near Leesville, Monday, was convicted in the York courts January 31, 1916, of clubbing and robbing a man on the outskirts of Rock Hill and sentenced to serve two years. He was paroled after a year's imprisonment. That there is no doubt concerning the identity of the man is shown by the fact that officers here remember he had only one arm, which tallies with the description of the Kirby held for complicity in the Leesville murder.

The Bamberg Herald, Bamberg, SC, 8/18/1921, Pg 1
Georgia Judge Demands Apology From South Carolina
For Invastion of S.C. Mob Into Georgia
By Judge Hammond
Augusta Judge Writes Letter of Protest to Gov. Hardwick Asking Delivery of Member of Mob
August 15, 1921
His Excellency, Thomas W. Hardwick, Governor of George, Atlanta, GA.:
Sir:
As a citizen of the state of Georgia I respectfully request that you lay the following statement of facts before Hon. Robert E. Cooper, governor o the state of South Carolina, and that you demand from him apology for what has occurred and immediate effective action in righting a grievous wrong to a sovereign commonwealth, of which you are the chief executive:
On the 8th day of August, two o'clock at night, near Leesville, S.C., S.J. Kirby, C.O. Fox, and Jesse Gappins foully robbed and cruelly murdered William C. Brazell, the driver of the taxicab in which they were riding. In the stolen car the three murderers came to Georgia, passed through the city of Augusta and county of Richmond. At McBean, near the Burke county line, the car broke down and while two of the three went forward on foot, the third, S.J. Kirby, sought a nearby chaingang official, W.D. Roberts, to whom he made a statement charging the other two with the robbery and murder. He was arrested and J.T. Plunkett, sheriff of Richmond county, notified. Immediately the sheriff put in motion every force at his command-drove with two deputies sixty miles. At Greens Cut, in Burke county, with the assistance of Frank Hurst, it's sheriff, he effected the arrest of the two fugitives from South Carolina and lodged them securely in the Richmond county jail. More than this; he actively and skillfully and yet by legitimate means obtained from the three conspirators confessions of guilt ample to secure their conviction. The sheriff then immediately got in communication with the South Carolina authorities. One of the prisoners, consenting to return to South Carolina, was taken by sheriff of Richmond county in the death car, which bore blood stains, and was carried to Leesville and led to the scene of the murder. Sheriff Plunkett turned over to Sheriff Ruff, sheriff of Lexington county, at the Lexington county jail the prisoner S.J. Kirby.  Sheriff Plunkett then returned to Augusta, accompanied by Sheriff Ruff, it being his purpose to remove the other two prisoners to Lexington county, but before the prisoners were removed Solicitor T.C. Callison telegraphed Sheriff Plunkett as follows: "Don't let Sheriff Ruff leave Augusta with prisoners tonight. Have him call me.". Sheriff Ruff reported that the solicitor told him over the phone that a mob was forming to waylay him on the road and take his prisoners from him and that he would ask the sheriff to hold them for him. This the sheriff of Richmond county consented to do, and the sheriff of Lexington county left for his home.
Your Excellency is asked to take into thoughtful consideration the foregoing as the first act in the drama which led to the outrage put upon the state of Georgia by the state of South Carolina. On August 10, at 8 o'clock at night Sheriff Plunkett was notified that the Augusta Chronicle had received from the Columbia State a message stating that an armed mob in automobiles was forming in Columbia; that it was going that night to Georgia and take by violence from the Richmond county jail the two slayers of Brazell and lynch them. Upon receipt of this information Sheriff Plunkett immediately called over the telephone Sheriff Heise, Sheriff Ruff, of Lexington County, and Cheif of Police Derrick, of Leesville, asking about the information that had reached him, requesting that he be given further information and that these peace officers, one of them located in the city where the mob was forming, and the others along its proposed line of march, should intercept and use all necessary force to prevent the mob coming to Georgia. He received absolutely no word of warning nor aid of any kind, nor as far as is known was any step taken by these or any other officers to prevent this invasion of Georgia by an armed mob.
The mob formed in Columbia and proceeded in a compact body along the usual highway to Augusta. It is known that Sheriff Heise knew of the formation of the mob before Sheriff Plunkett telephoned him. It is known that Chief of Police Derrick saw and spoke to the members of the mob in the automobiles as they passed through Leesville. On the uncertainty as to whether the mob would or would not attack the jail the Sheriff deemed it best to remove the prisoners to the city of Savannah.
At 4 o'clock a.m. Wednesday night an organized mob of over 100 heavily armed men went to the county stockade on Fifteenth street and with curses and threats forced and compelled an entrance to the stockade, made a search of the premises, arousing fifty or more sleeping convicts. Not finding their intended victims they then went to the Richmond county jail, a brick structure surrounded by a brick wall ten feet high. Again with threats and curses they scaled the wall, entered the jail yard and porch threatening to batter down the doors of the jail unless Fox and Gappins were instantly turned over to them. The jailer assured them that the prisoners had been removed from the jail, but these assurances were set at naught and the jailor compelled to turn over his keys and admit them for the purpose of search. They aroused the inmates of the jail, going from cell to cell in a search for their victims. Not finding them, they again with threats and curses and in tumultuous fashion left the jail. The members of this mob were guilty of a felony under Georgia law and subject to a punishment of from one to twenty years in the penitentiary. Mobs and lynchings have become so much the order of the day that unless some unique feature is presented mere comment upon the condition would seem to be vain. But up to this time mobs have been intra-state. This one was inter-state. Peace officers have been called on to deal with mobs formed within their own bailiwick. Has it come to pass that a sheriff may expect a mob from a neighbor, perhaps from a distant state.
However this may be, as a general proposition, the concrete situation is presented to Your Excellency of your sheriff, exerting almost superhuman effort to render service to the state of South Carolina-successful service, and the reward of such service is the invasion of Georgia territory by an armed, organized mob, the peace and quiet of a great city violated, the state's stronghold assaulted, it's keepers and defenders defied. Must you not require of the state of South Carolina genuine activity in securing and delivering to Georgia authority some of the hundred offenders who have outraged it? Three South Carolina criminals were arrested by Georgia authorities and returned to South Carolina with evidence to convict. Will not South Carolina arrest and deliver to Georgia one of the one hundred men who broke and defied it's laws? Had this very incident occurred between the countries of Mexico and the United States on the south , or the Dominion of Canada and the United States on the north, would not full explanation and apologies have been instantly made, and if not would the occurrence not have been a cause of war? Georgia and South Carolina are as distinct sovereigns as are two countries. A new condition is presented to your Excellency and you should take thought-serious thought-of how you should meet it. Here is invasion of your state by an armed force, defiance of it's laws and your authority. Assault and capture of your jail and stockade, your property seized, and what have you from South Carolina or it's governor in satisfaction of these unthinkable outrages?
What answer does she propose to make or will you exact?
Respectfully,
Henry C. Hammon


The Laurens Advertiser, Laurens, SC, 9/14/1921, Pg 1 and 4
Slayers Of Taxi Driver Go To Electric Chair Oct. 21st
Trials Ended in Lexington Yesterday
Kirby Admits Part In Killing
Three Columbia Men Charged With Murder of William Brazell, Young Columbia Taxi Driver, Found Guilty of Murder In First Degree
All Three Guilty
The Advertiser was informed by long distance telephone message from Lexington last night that Fox and Gappins, the two other men charged with the murder of William Brazell, young Columbia taxi driver on the night of August 9, were found guilty of first degree murder and that they, with Kirby, who was found guilty earlier in the day, were sentenced by Judge T.S. Sease to be electrocuted on October 21.
Columbia, Sept 13-"Guilty" was the verdict of the jury in the case of S.J. Kirby, the first of the three men to be tried in the Lexington court for the murder on August 9 of William Brazell, young Columbia taxi driver.
The verdict is a conviction of first degree murder and will carry the sentence of death in the electric chair.
The verdict was returned at 10:59 a.m., the jury having retired at 10:24. The sentence will hardly be passed until after the trial of Jesse Gappins and C.O. Fox, the other two men charged with the same crime. The trial of Fox and Gappins started immediately after the Kirby case was disposed of. It was not expected to take more time than that occupied by the Kirby case. The two men are being tried together. The Lexington trial was resumed at 9:52 this morning. The cross examination of Kirby by the solicitor was the first thing of the morning. Kirby was excused from the stand at 10:05. A.B. Martin, attorney for Kirby, appointed this morning by the court, spoke for three and a half minutes. He intimated that the jury might recommend mercy for his client. Solicitor Callison's argument occupied about five minutes. He urged the jury to bring a verdict of first degree guilt as an example to the public. He referred to the prevalence of crime and urged that the punishment in this case should be in the extreme. The charge of Judge Sease as to the law in the case was brief.
The State, Sept 13
Lexington, Sept. 12-S.J. Kirby, the first of the trio of alleged slayers of William Brazell, Columbia taxi driver, to go on trial today, charged with murder, taking the stand in his own defense late this afternoon, amended his previous confessions to abandon his hitherto stoutly maintained role of a forced and unwilling accessory to the crime, by admitting that he had assisted Jesse Gappins in holding young Brazell while C.O. Fox calmly proceeded to stab the taxi driver to death. Kirby also admitted that he, with Gappins and Fox, planned the details of the automobile robbery, which culminated in the killing, several days before the murder night, intending, however, he said, only to beat the driver into insensibility, tie him securely, leave him beside the road and then make good their escape in the stolen car. The blackjack, broken over young Brazell's head by Fox was bought by Kirby the Thursday before the Monday morning when the crime was committed, he testified.
Kirby exclaimed dramatically to the jury at one point in his story, "Gentlemen, I've got to die for this and I'm telling the truth. There's only one wish I want to make before I go and that is that God will take care of my wife and baby."
Kirby admitted on the stand that he had not been able to work for over a year and therefore been able to contribute but little to the support of this wife and 11 year old daughter. His only defense as outlined in his previous stories, told in Augusta, at Leesville and in Columbia, was that he was forced into hiring the automobile, was ignorance of the real purposes of fox and Gappins, and that he was forced to continue with the men in their trip to Georgia after the crime had been committed and though all the days intervening between his arrest and the trial Kirby has maintained that he took no active part in the killing, watching the beating and stabbing from the back seat of the automobile.
Kirby Still On Stand
Kirby was still on the stand when the court adjourned at about 5:30 o'clock. Solicitor T.C. Callison to begin his cross examination of the prisoner tomorrow morning at 9:30 o'clock, when the trial will resume. With the exclusion of Kirby's testimony the defense will probably rest, the case going to the jury following short addresses by Solicitor Callison and A.D. Martin, court appointed counsel for Kirby, and the judge's charge. Jesse Gappins and C.O. Fox, also accused with Kirby of the murder of young Brazell, will be tried simultaneously, their case coming up immediately after a verdict has been returned in the Kirby case.
Kirby took the stand late in the afternoon just after the state had rested it's case. Jesse Gappins, co-defendant with Kirby and Fox, being the witness for the prosecution. Gappins took the stand voluntarily and contradicted Kirby's original story in essential details. Kirby, Gappins, said was the only member of the trio who had any idea of stealing the car. Kirby, he swore, met and invited them to make the trip to "get some girls at a house near Lexington," invited Fox and Gappins to join him in a trip to Lexington for this purpose. He also testified that Kirby, instead of asking Fox to spare young Brazell's life, three times attempted to persuade him to take the blackjack and hit the driver over the head. Kirby, he said, instead of sitting idly by watching the other two men kill young Brazell, was the first of the trio to grab the driver, choking Brazell while Fox hit the boy. He swore that Kirby instead of being threatened by Fox and Gappins, threatened his two companions. The blackjack, Gappins also testified was bought by Kirby and was given to Gappins the Thursday before the crime was committed and was later, Gappins said, give by him to Fox, who, "he thought," had the weapon in his pocket the night of the killing.


The Newberry Herald, Newberry, SC, 9/16/1921, Pg 1


William "Willie" Calhoun Brazell was born 9/3/1901 in Richland County, SC to Marion Alexander Brazell (1874-1951) and Louise "Lula" Permelia Bradley (1876-1926). He died 8/8/1921 in Lexington County, SC. In the 1920 U.S. Census he was living with his parents in Edgewood, Columbia, Richland County, SC and was working as a "chauffeur for private family". His father was a "carpenter". Willie C. Brazell had 2 younger siblings.


The Newberry Herald, Newberry, SC, 9/16/1921, Pg 6
Kirby Now On Trial On Murder Charge
Defendant Admits Part In Killing
Fox and Gappins Will Face Jury Simultaneously Later-True Bills Returned
The State
Lexington, Sept 12-S.J. Kirby, the first of the trio of allged slayers of William Brazell, Columbia taxid driver, to go on trial today, charged with murder, taking the stand in his own defense late this afternoon, amended his previous confessions to abandon his hitherto stoutly maintained role of forced and unwilling accessory to the crime, by admitting that he had assisted Jesse Gappins in holding young Brazell while C.O. Fox calmly proceeded to stab the taxi driver to death. Kirby also admitted that he, with Gappins and Fox, planned the details of the automobile robbery, which culminated in the killing, several days before the murder night, intending, however, he said, only to beat the driver into insensibility, tie him beside the road and then make good their escape in the stolen car. The blackjack, broken over young Brazell's head by Fox, was bought by Kirby the Thursday before the Monday morning when the crime commenced, he testified.
Kirby exclaimed dramatically to the jury at one point in his story, "Gentlemen, I've got to die for this and I'm telling the truth. There's only one wish I want to make before I go and that is that God will take care of my wife and baby."
Kirby admitted on the stand that he had not been able to work for over a year and had therefore been able to contribute but little  to the support of his wife and 11 year old daughter. His only defense as outlined in his previous stories, told in Augusta, at Lessville and in Columbia, was that he was forced into hiring the automobile, was ignorant of the real purposes Fox and Gappins, and that he was forced to continue with the men in their trip to Georgia after the crime had been committed-and through all the days intervening between his arrest and the trial Kirby has maintained that he took no active part in the killing, watching the beating and stabbing from the back seat of the automobile.
Kirby Still On Stand
Kirby was still on the stand when the court was adjourned at about 5:30 o'clock. Solicitor T.C. Callison to begin his cross examination of the prisoner tomorrow morning at 9:30 o'clock, when the trial will be resumed. With the conclusion of Kirby's testimony the defense will probably rest, the case going to the jury following short addresses by Solicitor Callison and A.D. Martin, court appointed counsel for Kirby, and the judge's charge. Jesse Gappins and C.O. Fox, also accused with Kirby of the murder of young Brazell, will be tried simultaneously, their case coming up immediately after a verdict has been returned in the Kirby case.
Kirby took the stand late in the afternoon just after the state had rested its case, Jesse Gappins, co-defendant, with Kirby and Fox, being the witness for the prosecution. Gappins took the stand voluntarily and contradicted Kirby's original story in essential details. Kirby, Gappins said, was the only member of the trio who had any idea of stealing the car. Kirby, he swore, met and invited them to make a trip to "get some girls at a house near Lexington,"  invited Fox and Gappins to join him in a trip for this purpose. He also testified that Kirby, instead of asking Fox to spare young Brazell's life, three times attempted to persuade him to take the blackjack and hit the driver over the head. Kirby, he said, instead of sitting idly by watching the other two men kill young Brazell, was the first o the trio to grab the driver, choking Brazell while he hit the boy. He swore that Kirby instead of being threatened by Fox and Gappins, threatened his tow companions. The blackjack, Gappins also testified, was bought by Kirby and was given to Gappins the Thursday before the crime was committed and was later Gappins said, given by him to Fox, who, "he thought," had the weapon in his pocket the night of the killing.
Would Save Self
Gappins swore that he and Fox were both misled by Kirby into believing that the three of them were to go to a point about a mile and a half beyond Lexington, where they were to get some girls, and bring them back to town. Kirby, he said, hired the automobile and picked up Fox and himself at the Seaboard station, where they had gone, he claimed, to find out the schedule for the Camden train. Just on the Augusta side of Lexington, Kirby, according to Gappins' testimony, got out of the car and approached Gappins. He told him to "take the blackjack and knock hell out of Brazell." Gappins claims he refused to obey Kirby's orders, saying that such a thing would "get them all in trouble." "Damn trouble." Kirby is alleged to have replied. "They know me well at the penitentiary. I was sent up for life and got out of that and I reckon that I'll get out of this." Twice again Kirby stopped the car, Gappins said, and twice again this converstaion was repeated.
At the scene of the killing Fox had the car stopped, Gappins testified, and while Kirby held the driver, choking him with his one arm, fox hit him with the blackjack, three or four times, finally bursting the leather jacket that held the "lead." Gappins got out of the car, he said, while Fox went around the back of the car, Kirby in the meantime holding to the wounded man. Kirby released his hold on the boy's neck somewhat. Gappins testified, and the boy began pleading for his life, "I'm dying," he said. To which Gappins said Kirby answered, "Yes, damn you, you will be dying when I get through with you." Fox then stabbed Brazall, according to Gappins, and Kirby jumped on the driver as he fell to the ground. Gappins admitted that he "touched" Brazell's arm while the cutting was being done.
Blame on Kirby
Under Kirby's orders, Gappins said, he then got into the car and drove off after assisting Fox and Kirby in placing the body in the car and later in hiding it in the woods. Later on during the drive, Gappins said he became somewhat frightened at what they had done. This, he testified, was noticed by Kirby, who, he said, told him, "Your'e too damn scared. I don't have no more skimption at killing a man than I do for a dog. If I had been convicted of all the crimes I have been  guilty of they'd have to hang six men a day for 12 months to pay for them."
Gappins told his story in a clear, distinct voice, somewhat brazenly as if he were recounting the tale of some fishing trip. The monotone in which it was told gave the story somewhat the aura of a memorized "piece" at a high school commencement, Gappins pausing in his story only to repeatedly mop the perspiration from his face. And Kirby, seated in the prisoner's dock, watched and listened practically emotionless, his head resting on his one arm.
Kirby in taking the stand assumed a forensic attitude, speaking directly to the jurors, whom he addressed as "gentlemen", and delivering his story with almost continuous gestures. Here he showed considerable more emotion, all of which, however, was directed to convincing the jury that his story, in which he accused Gappins of practically everything Gappins had accused him of, was true.
Clyde Hester of Columbia, owner of the "murder car", was the first witness for the state, telling of seeing Brazell last at 9 o'clock Sunday night August 7, and identifying the automobile found in Georgia as his car and the machine that young Brazell was driving.
Dr. D.M. Crosson of Leesville told of his examination of Brazell's body when it was found near Leesville, describing the knife and other wounds in the boy's right chest, about the head and on the right hand. Death, he testified, was caused by a profuse hemorrhage from a terrible wound under the right shoulder, the knife in this instance passing entirely through the lung.
Arrested Kirby in Georgia
W.D.Roberts o 522 Moore Avenue, Augusta, Ga., a chaingang guard, told of Kirby's confessing  to him and of his notifying Sheriff Plunkett of Richmond county and of his arrest of Kirby and later Fox and Gappins. From Kirby's story, Mr. Roberts said, nothing would have prevented the prisoner from escaping from Fox and Gappins had he decided to do so, several opportunities were open to him according to his own story, Mr. Roberts testified.
Mr. Collens, station agent at McBean, Ga., near which Kirby was arrested, told of Kirby's visit to the railroad station at McBean to send a telegram for some money. Fox and Gappins were nowhere in the immediate vicinity, Mr. Collens said, and could not ? Kirby into doing their will in sending the telegram.
M.C. Allen, Columbia detective, described a meeting with Kirby Sunday night, August 7, just before Brazell was engaged for the fatal trip. Kirby, Mr. Allen said, made no appeal to him for protection from anyone.
Court was opened at 10 o'clock, the Kirby-Gappins-Fox case being the first to go before the grand jury, which returned a true bill at 11:45 o'clock. Surrounded by state constables and other guards the three were then brought before the court where they announced that none of them had employed counsel. Judge Thomas S. Sease then appointed attorneys for the three men. The three men were then unhandcuffed and formerly arraigned. The prisoners were then allowed time for conference with their attorney's, the court recessing until 3 o'clock.
At 3 o'clock court was reconvened and counsel for the prisoners announced that they were ready for trial waiving the three days lapse granted by law. Solicitor Callison then moved for separation of the cases, trying Kirby first, to later take up the cases against Fox and Gappins simultaneously. At 3:30 o'clock the drawing of the jury began, the entire panel being completed in 17 minutes. The large majority of the men sitting on the case are farmers and all, with the exception of four, had previously conceived notions as to Kirby's guilt. Members of the jury are: J.S. Addy, Homer Woods, Moses K. Kneece, Jesse I. Sox, E. Simpson Spy, Archie L. Sox, J. Milton Oswald, Killian Oxner, G.J. Bouknight and Jacob H. Bundrick.
Guard for Prisoners
Accompanied by a heavily armed guard the three prisoners were moved from the state penitentiary at 3:05 o'clock this morning, reaching the Lexington court house at 3:35 o'clock. Composing the guard were: State Constable T.A. Berley, Cheif J.D. Dunnaway of the Richland rural police, W.S. Ramsey and C.F. Towne of the penitentiary guard, Chrief S.S. Shorter, J.P. Broom, E.B. Carter and M.C. Allen of the Columbia detective orce, State Constable T.J. Smyrle, State Constable J.L. Poppenheim and State Constable W.C. Eichelberger. Immediately after the adjournment of the court th three men were led down the steps from the court house, escorted to the automobile, the guards being distributed among the three cars. The little caravan took the straight road back to Columbia, running along at a fairly slow pace until the corner of Huger and Gervais streest where it turned off for the state penitentiary.
The court house was crowded far beyond capacity throughout the day's session, it being estimated that approximately 2,000 persons swarmed around the court house eager to catch a glimpse of the three prisoners. The court house has a seating capacity of approximately 400, but at the morning session over 600 men, women and children were packed into the building. Judge Sease announcing that he would have aisles cleared for the remainder of the session and would allow no one inside the rail save newspaper men, ministers of the gospel and attorneys.
In all this superheated mass of humanity there were no signs of mob violence and the trial, it is thought, will be concluded without even the talk of lynching being heard.   G.A.B.
Sentence of Death For Convicted Men
Gappins swung his head from one side to the other while Fox and Kirby were being sentenced. His arms seemd to worry him somewhat also. A slight twitching of the lips was the only sign of worry shown by Kirby during the ordeal.
Mrs. Kirby Overcome
Mrs. S.J. Kirby, Kirby's wife, who with her 11 year old daughter sat through the entire day's session, fainted when sentence was pronounced on her husband. She had apparently stood up under the strain until the verdict was returned. The word "guilty" was read by the clerk and suddenly Mrs. Kirby threw her head over on her daughter's shoulder and broke into tears, while her husband sat in the prisoner's dock, to all outward show, totally unconcerned with the events transpiring around him. Mrs. Kirby and her daughter were seated in the audience, five rows from the railing and the prisoner's dock while Gappins' mother and sister, who also heard the greater part of the trial, sat just inside the rail on a long bench on which were also seated W.E. Brazell and his daughter, the father and sister of the murdered boy. Mrs. Gappins was on the verge of a breakdown several times during the taking of testimony against her son and burst into tears during Solicitor T.C. Callison's address to the jury. Mrs. Gappins and her daughter left the court room when the jury retired, going into a nearby anteroom where later she was told of the verdict and sentence. She was still in tears when she was escorted from the court house to return to Columbia. Mrs. Jesse Gappins, Gappins' wife, was also a witness at the morning session, failing to return, however, when court reconvened after the dinner recess.
J.S. Fox of Stanley Creek, N.C., father of Fox, was also present at part of the trial, breaking down when he learned of the jury's verdict.
Fox on Stand
Fox, like Kirby, admitted the role he had played in the killing, calmly recounting how he had first struck Brazell with the blackjack and then stabbed him to death. Gappins, however, repeated his story as told in Kirby's trial yesterday, insisting on his innocence of actual participating in the killing. He also maintained that he was ignorant of any plan to steal Brazell's car, admitting, however, that he with Kirby and Fox had planned to steal "a car" to be driven from Columbia and sold. Gappins' story was in a large part contradicted by his own signed confession given Sheriff T.J. Plunkett at Savannah, in which he had admitted that he held Brazell's arm while Fox did the stabbing. Parts of his story were also belied by the stories o Fox and Kirby and by the evidence of previous confessions made by Gappins and the other two men to Sheriff Plunkett, State Detective T.A. Berley, W.D. Roberts, and Deputy Sheriff W.J. Leonards of Charleston.
The two prisoners were brought to Lexington fron the state penitentiary at 9:22 o'clock this morning. Kirby took the stand again at 9:52 o'clock and Solicitor Callison began his cross examination eliciting an admission from Kirby that he with the other two men, had lured the taxi driver to his death. Kirby also admitted that he did not repeat "until the car broke down" and that the three men did not come to Lexington to see any girls. With the completion of Kirby's cross examination the defense closed and after short addresses by Solicitor Callison and A.D. Martin, Kirby's attorney appointed by the court, and a brief charge as to the law in the case by Judge Sease the case went to jury at 10:24 o'clock and thirty five minutes later a verdict of guilty was returned.
Two minutes later the trial of Fox and Gappins was bgeun, the jury drawn as follows: Foreman, C.W. Hallman; Davis J. Roof, Claud O. Amiek, W. Ocy Gantt, Archie W. Craft, Simon Smith, Joe D. Sox, Jerome R. Gunter, A. Harper Shull and D.H. Wilson. Ernest B. Craps was excused from service by Judge Sease.
Confessions to Sheriff
The prosecution's case was largely based upon confessions made by the two men to Sheriff T.J. Plunkett of Augusta, Ga., who arrested the prisoners and carried them to Augusta and later took them on a wild ride to Savannah a few hours ahead of a mob which later searched the Augusta jail, looking for them. Sheriff Plunkett testified that both Fox and Gappins had blood on their shirts when arrested while there was a huge spot on the carpet in the rear of the automobile. Fox, Sheriff Plunkett said, admitted to the Georgia authorities that he had hit Brazell with the blackjack and later stabbed him while Kirby and Gappins held the boy's arms. All three of the men, Sheriff Plunkett testified Fox told him, picked up the body and placed it in the rear of the car while Grappins drove to the spot where the car was stopped and all three men picked the body out of the car and carried it up an embankment into the woods. Fox was carrying the feet, while Grappins held the boy's arms and Kirby, his head. according to Fox's story, the sheriff testified. Fox dropped the driver's feet while Kirby turned loose the head. Gappins dragging the body into the woods unaided. Sheriff Plunkett also told of Gappins confessing to the Augusta officers of his holding one of Brazell's arms while Fox stabbed the boy to death. Sheriff Plunkett also told of written confessions signed voluntarily by the two men at Savannah. These confessions were introduced as evidenced.
Sheriff Plunkett's testimony was corroborated in every detail by T.E. Norris, Augusta, Ga., who had written down the confessions of Fox and Gappins at Savannah. W.J. Leonard, deputy sheriff of Charleston county, also testified as to confessions made to him by the two defendants further corroborating Sheriff Plunkett's testomoney.
Witnesses for State
Other witnesses for the state were Clyde Hester, owner of the murder car; Dr. D.M. Crosson, who examined the body of the young taxi driver when it was found by the roadside near Leesville, and W.J. Roberts, Augusta, Ga., chaingang guard, to whom Kirby first confessed.
The state rested it's case at 12:35 o'clcok and Fox took the stand, admitting that he with Kirby and Gappins had planned to steal an automobile; that he first struck Brazell with the blackjack and that he stabbed him twice with a knife. Fox also admitted that the three men left Columbia with Brazell, intending to steal the automobile and sell it. Gappins, he said, was the first person to inform him of the plan to steal automobiles. Although admitting that he stabbed Brazell twice, once when he was standing up, held by the other two men, and the second time when he was on the ground, Fox hinted that Kirby was the man actually to blame for the killing of the driver. "I don't feel like I killed the boy," he said. Court then adjourned for the dinner recess.
Gappins took the stand when the court reconvened at 3:05 o'clock, telling the same story as he recounted yesterday in Kirby's trial, blaming Kirby and Fox for the murder and claiming that he, himself, took no active part in the real killing and instead attempted to deter the other two men in their course. Gappins also claimed that he had no knowledge of any plan to take Brazell's automobile, thinking instead, he said that he, Kirby and Fox, were going to Lexington to get some girls. Confronted with his own signed confession, Gappins admitted that he had signed the paper and heard it read to him but claimed that "something had been left out."
State Detective Berley was the only witness introduced by the state in rebuttal, testifying that Gappins had confessed to him of holding Brazell's hand during the cutting.
McKendree, Barr, representing C.O. Fox waived his right to address the jury, T.C. Sturkie speaking however as Gappin's attorney. Solicitor Callison closed and then after Judge Sease's charge the case went to the jury at 4:34 o'clock, a verdict being agreed upon after 40 minutes deliberation.   G.A.B.


The Watchman And Southron, Sumter, SC, 9/17/1921, Pg



The Watchman and Southron, Sumter, SC, 9/17/1921, Pg 4



Thank you to Mike Warren for finding this newspaper article about Kirby and it is this article that indicates how he lost his arm. Yorkville Enquirer, York, SC, 6/20/1922, Pg 1 and The Dispatch News, Lexington, SC, 6/28/1922, Pg 3. Mike Warren also found some other newspaper reports of interest.



The Herald And News, Newberry, SC, 8/16/1921 Pg 2




 Edgefield Advertiser, Edgefield, SC, 9/28/1921, Pg 3




The Laurens Advertiser, Laurens, SC, 5/31/1922, Pg 3


Keeowee Courier, Pickens, SC, 5/31/1922, Pg 7


The Laurens Advertiser, Laurens, SC, 6/14/1922, Pg 9


The Union Daily Times, Union, SC, 6/15/1922, Pg 1



The Gaffney Ledger, Gaffney, SC, 6/17/1922, Pg 1

Central Correctional Institute (CCI) was also known as the State Penitentiary. It was located on seven acres at 1511 Williams Street, adjacent to the Congaree River. in Columbia, Richland County, South Carolina.Construction for CCI began in 1866 and it served the state as a prison for 130 years. It was finally torn down in 1994. According to Wikipedia - The first permanent building was the South Wing Cell Block, which served as a cell block until 1927 when it was demolished. Started around the same time, North Wing Cell Block or as it is more commonly known, Cell Block One, was completed in 1886. North Wing stood five stories tall, built from granite with the tops of the walls crenellated. The interior was essentially an Auburn style cell block, but in the Baltimore pattern variation where the cells lined the exterior. The cells were approximately 5'x6' with a ceiling height of 6.5' and door openings of 25". The initial complex comprised two cell blocks and an administrative building. It would later evolve into a more diverse institution, including a hospital and separate blocks for females and juvenile inmates. Significant structures include the boundary wall, made of granite and brick, the North Wing Cell Block, the electric chair building, the Richards building, and the Chair Factory building. The penitentiary remained the only maximum-security prison until 1975.

In this first picture, you see the castle like original building.









In 1907, the first electric chair was installed in New Jersey. Often referred to as Old Sparky (in Arkansas, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Nebraska, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia) and Old Smokey (in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee), the electric chairs were thought to be more clean and humane than the hangman's rope. When someone was hanged and it wasn't done right, it could be a terrible way to die with the victim thrashing around, strangling, urinating and defecating. Electricity was just beginning with Tessla, Edison and Westinghouse. Edison, inventor of the light bulb and a pioneer of electricity, was marketing an electric transmission system based on direct current (dc). But, George Westinghouse, was a rival inventing alternating current (ac). Edison falsely claimed that Westinghouse’s AC, with its much higher voltage, was too dangerous. So, in 1887, Edison began a series of bizarre experiments at his lab, shocking to death unwanted dogs, cats and even a circus elephant with AC to prove that the current was deadly. New York soon decided on an AC electric chair as a substitute for hanging. A delighted Edison urged authorities to use the term "Westinghousing" instead of electrocuting. The first electrocution in history was a disaster. The condemned man was ax murderer, William Kemmler. He lived through the first round of shocks. His executioners had to do it all over again. "They would have done better with an axe," Westinghouse commented. New York's executioners began to perfect the combination of amperes and voltage needed to kill a man without cooking him. South Carolina installed "Old Sparky" in 1912 at the Central Correctional Institution (CCI) in Columbia. As of today, the last time it was used was 2008. 243 people were executed by electric chair before the South Carolina Penitentiary (CCI) closed.


The Watchman And Southron, Sumter, SC, 6/17/1922, Pg 1
It is in this article that Lula Norket Kirby claims her husband has a silver plate in his head.


The three men were electrocuted on 6/16/1922. The only time 3 men were electrocuted on the same day for the same crime. S.J. Kirby was pronounced dead at 6:15am. The last word on his death was this article:

The Greenville News, Greenville, SC, 11/27/1927, Pg 11

He was buried at Olympia Mill Village Cemetery, Granby Lane, Columbia, Richland County, SC.

Lula Asbury Norket remarried to Harry A. McGill fairly soon after S.J. Kirby was electrocuted as she has another daughter in 1925. This daughter was Marjorie "Margie" McGill. I have not been able to find out any more information on Harry A. McGill. Lula lived in Charlotte, NC and is listed in the Charlotte City Directories which is where I got her husband's name as she is listed a few times as "widow of Harry A." starting in 1928. So Harry McGill must not have lived long either.

Lula Norket Kirby McGill died 7/23/1939 at the age of 43 yrs old. She died in Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, NC of coronary occlusion. She is buried in Elmwood Cemetery, 700 W 6th Street, Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, NC.


I feel the most sorry for the Kirbys' daughter, Ethel Joye Kirby. It sounds like she had a hard life and then probably suffered some stigma afterwards. And, yet, she was the most innocent. It's hard to read about how her father beat her, chained her and shot at her in one story and then to read how devastated she and her mother were when he was pronounced "guilty" and electrocuted. But it seems to be the way it is with children. He was the only father she knew. Her mother may not have had much choice in staying with an abusive husband, but at the same time she was weeping and fainting at the verdict and sentencing, went to the governor to beg for his life, and then to put up that fancy gravestone later. We never know the family dynamics and we can't judge, but those two adults made a hard life for innocent Ethel Joye Kirby.

Ethel Joie Kirby married a Pay and died 4/8/1972 in Tulare County, California. That's all I could find about her. Her mother died in 1939 when Joy Kirby was 28 yrs old. In 1940, her half sister, Margie McGill, 15 yrs old, was living with her. Joy Kirby was an office clerk for a rubber tire company in Charlotte, NC and Marjorie was attending school. They are living on Woodland Rd, Charlotte, NC. I think it was the same house their mother was living in when she died. I hope both girls went on to happy lives.

Monday, January 15, 2018

Angels


I got interested in the subject of Angels recently and have been plowing through a lot of information and I wanted to share it. First of all, I'm not a Biblical scholar or expert, just a plain Jane trying to study the Bible. There is a lot of complicated stuff on this subject but I will try to give you background, scripture and the gist of what I've been studying. My word is not definitive on this subject but I'll do the best I can.

It is important to begin this study with the caution that Angels are real but they are NOT God and therefore should not be worshiped or prayed to. They are created beings like we are and we should always worship the Creator, rather than the created.

Matthew 4:9-10 (Amplified - Amp) and [satan] said to [Jesus], “All these things I will give You, if You fall down and worship me.” 10 Then Jesus said to him, “Go away, Satan! For it is written and forever remains written, ‘You shall worship the Lord your God, and serve Him only.’”

Revelation 22:8-9 (Amp) I, John, am the one who heard and saw these things. And when I heard and saw them, I fell down to worship before the feet of the angel who showed me these things. But he said to me, “Do not do that. I am a fellow servant with you and your brothers the prophets and with those who heed and remember [the truths contained in] the words of this book. Worship God.”

1 Peter 3:21-22 (Contemporary English Version-CEV) Those flood waters were like baptism that now saves you. But baptism is more than just washing your body. It means turning to God with a clear conscience, because Jesus Christ was raised from death. 22 Christ is now in heaven, where he sits at the right side[a] of God. All angels, authorities, and powers are under his control.

Colossians 1:15-17 (Good News Bible - GNB) 15 Christ is the visible likeness of the invisible God. He is the first-born Son, superior to all created things. 16 For through him God created everything in heaven and on earth, the seen and the unseen things, including spiritual powers, lords, rulers, and authorities. God created the whole universe through him and for him. 17 Christ existed before all things, and in union with him all things have their proper place.

Ephesians 1:15-22 (GNB) 18 I ask that your minds may be opened to see his light, so that you will know what is the hope to which he has called you, how rich are the wonderful blessings he promises his people, 19 and how very great is his power at work in us who believe. This power working in us is the same as the mighty strength 20 which he used when he raised Christ from death and seated him at his right side in the heavenly world. 21 Christ rules there above all heavenly rulers, authorities, powers, and lords; he has a title superior to all titles of authority in this world and in the next. 22 God put all things under Christ's feet and gave him to the church as supreme Lord over all things.

Colossians 2:18 (GNB) 18 Do not allow yourselves to be condemned by anyone who claims to be superior because of special visions and who insists on false humility and the worship of angels. For no reason at all, such people are all puffed up by their human way of thinking.

Hebrews 1:13-14 (GNB, parenthesis mine) 13 God never said to any of his angels: “Sit here at my right side until I put your enemies as a footstool under your feet.” (which He did say to Jesus!) 14 What are the angels, then? They are spirits who serve God and are sent by him to help those who are to receive salvation.



The Angels are real. Many people may think that's too supernatural and they avoid the subject. Others take the fact of Angels and run with it and are soon worshiping Angels, commanding Angels and seeing Angels everywhere. It's important to strike the balance. Angels are real but they are servants of God. God is the power, God is the wisdom, God is the miracle worker and God directs the Angels. He created them as He created everything!

Psalm 148: 2-5 (Easy To Read Version - ERV)
2 Praise him, all you angels!
Praise him, all his army!
3 Sun and moon, praise him!
Stars and lights in the sky, praise him!
4 Praise him, highest heaven!
Waters above the sky, praise him!
5 Let them praise the Lord’s name,
because he gave the command and created them all!

Did you know that there seems to be a hierarchy of Angels? The first person to write about the hierarchy of angels was Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite in the 4th or 5th century in his book De Coelesti Hierarchia (On the Celestial Hierarchy). Angels are organized into several orders, or "Angelic Choirs".

Christian Angelogy
  • The first sphere of Angels
    • Seraphim (see below)
    • Cherubim (see below)
    • Thrones (Possibly ophranim of Jewish Angel hierarchy and is the wheel within the wheels of Ezekiel and Daniel's visions)
  • The second sphere of Angels
    • Dominions (The Dominions regulate the duties of lower angels. It is only with extreme rarity that the angelic lords make themselves physically known to humans.)
    • Virtues (These angels are those through which signs and miracles are made in the world.)
    • Powers (The primary duty of the "Powers" is to supervise the movements of the heavenly bodies in order to ensure that the cosmos remains in order.Being warrior angels, they also oppose evil spirits, especially those that make use of the matter in the universe, and often cast evil spirits to detention places.The Powers are the bearers of conscience and the keepers of history. They are also the warrior angels created to be completely loyal to God. Some believe that no Power has ever fallen from grace. Their duty is to oversee the distribution of power among mankind, hence their name.)
  • The third sphere of Angels
    • Principalities (Angels that guide and protect nations, or groups of peoples, and institutions such as the Church. The Principalities preside over the bands of angels and charge them with fulfilling the divine ministry.)
    • Archangels (Envoys and Guardian angels of nations and countries, and are concerned with the issues and events surrounding these, including politics, military matters, commerce and trade.)
    • Angels (Are the ones most concerned with the affairs of living things. They include guardian Angels and are messengers to humanity.)



The study of Angels is called angelology (pronounced angel-ology) and the results of study have formed our doctrine of Angels. Angels are mentioned 196 times in the Bible.

They appear to be organized into various ranks, orders and positions. Michael is called the Archangel or chief angel (Jude 9). Then, in Daniel 10:13 he is called one of the chief princes. Other ranks and orders are suggested by the terms used of angels in Ephesians 3:10; Ephesians 6:12, and 1 Peter 3:22.


Seraphim

Isaiah 6:1-7 (MKJV) In the year that King Uzziah died I then saw the Lord sitting on a throne, high and lifted up, and His train filled the temple. (2) Above it stood the seraphs; each one had six wings; with two he covered his face, and with two he covered his feet, and with two he flew. (3) And one cried to another, and said, Holy, holy, holy, is Jehovah of Hosts; the whole earth full of His glory. (4) And the doorposts moved at the voice of the one who cried, and the house was filled with smoke. (5) Then I said, Woe is me! For I am undone; for I am a man of unclean lips, and I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips; for my eyes have seen the King, Jehovah of Hosts. (6) Then one of the seraphs flew to me, having a live coal in his hand, snatched with tongs from the altar. (7)And he laid it on my mouth and said, Lo, this has touched your lips; and your iniquity is taken away, and your sin purged.


The Hebrew word "saraph" signifies a fiery serpent. Could this possibly be why satan presented himself in the Garden of Eden as a serpent? But these Seraphim are fiery ones, burning and glowing. They are only so named in Isaiah. They are are not described in detail and are sometimes represented by a storm cloud with flashing lightening. They had faces, feet, hands and wings. The six wings, in three pairs, covered their faces and feet in humility and reverence, and were used for sustaining them in their positions about the throne of God. Two wings were kept ready for instant flight in God's service; two veiled their faces as unworthy to look on the holy God or pry into His secret counsels which they fulfilled. And two cover the lower part of the body in reverence. In the New Testament the only possible equivalent is in “the living ones” in Revelation 4:1-11 and Revelation 5:1-14. They may or may not be the same. In Revelation, as in Isaiah, they appear near the head of God's throne, continually praising His holiness. It was one of these fiery ones who took the coal from the fire and touched it to the prophet, Isaiah's, lips to cleanse them. After Christ ascended into Heaven, tongues of fire fell from Heaven and touched the Disciples who became Apostles. It was the descent of the Holy Spirit to earth on the Day of Pentecost.

Acts 2:1-4 (MKJV) And in the fulfilling of the day of Pentecost, they were all with one accord in one place. 2) And suddenly a sound came out of the heaven as borne along by the rushing of a mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting. (3) And tongues as of fire appeared to them, being distributed; and it sat upon each of them. (4) And they were all filled of the Holy Spirit, and began to speak in other languages, as the Spirit gave them utterance.

But I think it's not a coincidence that holy fire represents the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit empowers, sanctifies, and reveals God to us and that's what the coal did to Isaiah.

The seraphim's occupation was to praise God's holiness and power, and to act as the medium of communication between heaven and earth(Isaiah 6:6). They form a choir that sings so loudly that they shake the foundations of the palace. They protect God from the approach of sin and evil and considered the caretakers of God's throne.




Cherubim

We tend to think of "cherubim" as a chubby little baby boy angel. That is far from the truth!


The cherubs are apparently the attendants of the Deity. As attendants of God, they bear the throne upon which He descends from His high abode.

Psalm 18:9-10 (Modern King James Version - MKJV) And He bowed the heavens and came down, and darkness was under His feet.  (10)  And He rode on a cherub, and flew; yea, He soared on the wings of the wind.

Psalm 80:1 (MKJV) To the Chief Musician. A Testimony Concerning the Lilies. A Psalm of Asaph. Give ear, O Shepherd of Israel, You who lead Joseph like a flock; You dwelling between the cherubs, shine forth.

Psalm 99:1 (MKJV) Jehovah reigns; let the peoples tremble. He sits between the cherubs; let the earth quake.

Ezekiel 1:4-28 (Modern King James Version - MKJV) And I looked, and behold, a windstorm came out of the north, a great cloud, and a fire flashing itself, and a brightness to it all around, and out of its midst, like the color of polished bronze out of the middle of the fire. (5) Also out of its midst came the likeness of four living creatures. And this was how they looked; they had the likeness of a man. (6) And four faces were to each, and four wings to each. (7) And their feet were straight feet; and the sole of their feet was like the sole of a calf's foot. And they sparkled like the color of burnished copper.(8) And the hands of a man extended from under their wings on their four sides; and the four of them had their faces and their wings, (9) joining each one to the other by their wings. They did not turn in their going; each one went toward the front of their face. (10) And the likeness of their faces: the face of a man, and the face of a lion, on the right side to the four of them; and the face of an ox on the left side to the four of them; and the face of an eagle to the four of them. (11) So their faces were. And their wings were stretched upward; to each, the two wings of each one were joined; and two wings covered their bodies. (12) And each went toward the front of their faces. To where the spirit was to go, there they went; they did not turn in their going. (13) And the likeness of the living creatures: they looked like burning coals of fire; like the appearance of torches. It was continually circling among the living creatures. And the fire was bright, and out of the fire went forth lightning. (14) And the living creatures kept running and returning, like the appearance of a flash of lightning. (15) And as I looked at the living creatures, behold, one wheel was on the earth by the living creatures, with its four faces. (16) The appearance of the wheels and their workmanship was the color of beryl, and the four of them had one likeness. And their appearance and their workmanship was like a wheel in the middle of a wheel. (17) When they went, they went on their four sides; and they did not turn when they went. (18) And their rims: they were even high; they were even awesome. And their rims were full of eyes all around the four of them. (19) And in the going of the living creatures, the wheels went beside them; and in the lifting up of the living creatures from the earth, the wheels were lifted up. (20) Wherever the spirit was to go, there they went; there the spirit was to go, and the wheels were lifted up along with them. For the spirit of the living creature was in the wheels. (21) In their going, these went; and in their standing still, these stood still. And in their lifting up from the earth, the wheels were lifted up along with them. For the spirit of the living creature was in the wheels. (22) And there was a likeness over the heads of the living creature; an expanse, like the color of awesome crystal stretched out over their heads from above. (23) And under the expanse their wings were straight, the one toward the other. Each one had two wings covering on this side, and to each two covering on that side of their bodies. (24) And I heard the sound of their wings, like the sound of great waters, like the voice of the Almighty, in their going was the sound of tumult, like the sound of an army. In their standing still, they let down their wings. (25) And there was a voice from the expanse which was over their heads, in their standing still, and they let down their wings. (26) And from above the expanse that was over their heads was a likeness like a sapphire stone, the likeness of a throne. And on the likeness of the throne was a likeness looking like a man on it from above. (27) And I saw Him looking like the color of polished bronze, looking like fire all around within it. From the likeness of His loins even upward, and from the likeness of His loins even downward, I saw Him, looking like fire, and it had brightness all around. (28) As the bow that is in the cloud in the day of rain looks, so the brightness all around looked. This was how the likeness of the glory of Jehovah looked. And I saw. And I fell on my face, and I heard a voice of One speaking.

Ezekiel 10:1-22 (International Standard Version - ISV) As I continued to watch, there on the expanse above the heads of the cherubim was a massive sapphire stone that resembled a throne in form and appearance. (2) The LORD spoke to the man who was clothed in white linen, telling him, "Go between the whirling wheels, under the cherubim, and fill your hands with burning coals from among the cherubim. Then scatter them over the city." So he entered as I watched. (3) Now the cherubim were standing on the south side of the entrance to the Temple, when the man entered and a cloud filled the inner court. (4) The glory of the LORD rose above the cherub and moved to the threshold of the Temple. A cloud filled the Temple and the court was filled with the brilliance of the LORD's glory. (5) The sound of the wings of the cherubim, reminiscent of the voice of the Sovereign God when he speaks, could be heard as far as the outer court. (6) He issued this order to the man who was clothed in white linen. "Take fire from within the whirling wheels, among the cherubim." So he went and stood beside the wheels. (7) Then a cherub stretched out his hand to the fire, which was among the cherubim, took some of the fire, and placed it in the hands of the one clothed in white linen, who took it and left. (8) There appeared to be human hands under the wings of the cherubim. (9) As I continued to watch, I observed four wheels beside the cherubim, one wheel beside each cherub. The wheels resembled beryl stone. (10) In appearance, the four wheels looked like they consisted of a wheel within a wheel. (11) Whenever they moved, they proceeded without turning around as they moved, but they followed in the direction where their head was facing, without looking around as they moved. (12) Their entire bodies, backs, hands, and wings were filled with eyes around, including each of their four wheels (13) The wheels whose sound I was hearing were called "the whirling wheels". (14) Each had four faces. The first one was the face of cherub, the second the face of a man, the third the face of a lion, and the fourth the face of an eagle. (15) The cherubim arose. These were the same beings that I had seen at the Kebar River. (16) When the cherubim moved, the wheels went alongside them. But when the cherubim started to ascend, beating their wings to rise above the earth, the wheels beside them didn't turn. (17) When they stood still, the wheels stood still. When they rose up, the wheels rose up, too, because they were alive. (18) Then the glory of the LORD moved away from the threshold of the Temple and stood over the cherubim. (19) The cherubim lifted their wings and rose above the earth while I watched. They went out, along with their wheels, and stood at the entrance to the east gate of the LORD's Temple as the glory of Israel's God remained above, covering them. (20) These were the living beings that I had seen under the God of Israel on the bank of the Kebar River. I knew that they were cherubim. (21 Each one had four faces. Each one had four wings, and the form of human hands could be seen under their wings. (22) As to the likeness of their faces, they were like what I had seen on the bank of the Kebar River. They each moved straight ahead.

Based on Ezekiel 1, Cherubims are represented as four living creatures, each with four faces, man, lion, ox, and eagle, having the figure and hands of men, and the feet of calves. Each has four wings, two of which are stretched upward, meeting above and sustaining the “firmament,” that is, the bottom of the Divine throne, while two are stretched downward, conformable the one to the other, so as to cover their lower bodies. They resemble "coals of fire" (Ezekiel 10:2, Ezekiel 10:6 f, where the “man clothed in linen” is bidden fill both his hands with coals of fire from between the cherubim), burning like torches, the fire flashing up and down among the creatures, a bright fire out of which lightning goes forth. Thus the creatures run and vanish as the appearance of a flash of lightning. The cherubim do not turn as they change direction, but always go straight forward, as do the wheels of the cherubic chariot with rings full of eyes round about (Ezekiel 10:12).

Ezekiel's cherubim are clearly related to the seraphim in Isaiah's vision (Isaiah 6:1-13). Like the cherubim, the seraphim are the attendants of God as He is seated upon a throne high and exalted; they are also winged creatures: with two they cover their faces, and with two they cover their feet, and with two they fly. The cherubim, seraphim, and all the angels of power constitute the “host of God,”




******************************

This part of my study is a word study of Psalm 89:5-8. If you don't want to go that deep, skip this part.

Let's look carefully at this scripture:
Psalm 89:5-8 (King James Version - KJV)
5 And the heavens shall praise thy wonders, O Lord: thy faithfulness also in the congregation of the saints.
6 For who in the heaven can be compared unto the Lord? who among the sons of the mighty can be likened unto the Lord?
7 God is greatly to be feared in the assembly of the saints, and to be had in reverence of all them that are about him.
8 O Lord God of hosts, who is a strong Lord like unto thee? or to thy faithfulness round about thee?

These four verses need a little word study so let's do it!

Psalm 89:5-8 (KJV with Strong's Exhaustive Concordance) And the heavensH8064 shall praiseH3034 thy wonders,H6382 O LORD:H3068 thy faithfulnessH530 alsoH637 in the congregationH6951 of the saints.H6918 (6) ForH3588 whoH4310 in the heavenH7834 can be comparedH6186 unto the LORD?H3068 who among the sonsH1121 of the mightyH410 can be likenedH1819 unto the LORD?H3068 (7) GodH410 is greatlyH7227 to be fearedH6206 in the assemblyH5475 of the saints,H6918 and to be had in reverenceH3372 ofH5921 allH3605 them that are aboutH5439 him. (8) O LORDH3068 GodH430 of hosts,H6635 whoH4310 is a strongH2626 LORDH3050 like unto thee?H3644 or to thy faithfulnessH530 round aboutH5439 thee?

Now we take the numbers behind each word and look them up in Strong's Hebrew and Greek Concordance. If it has an "H" before the number that means it will be found in the Hebrew Concordance. If it has a "G" before the number that means it will be found in the Greek Concordance. They are arranged in numerical order so once you have the number and you know to look in the Greek or Hebrew, just look for the number in numerical sequence. Strong's has two parts: Hebrew for the Old Testament and Greek for the New Testament. The Old Testament was originally written in Hebrew and the New Testament was originally written in Greek. Since Psalm 89 is in the Old Testament that means it's original language was Hebrew so we turn to the first section of Strong's which is the Hebrew Concordance and look the number up.

Heavens - H8064
Hebrew words: שׁמה / שׁמים
If the Hebrew letters were translated to the English alphabet (transliteration) it would be written like this: shâmayim, shâmeh
It would be pronounced like this: shaw-mah'-yim, shaw-meh'
The etymology or derivation of the word is given: the second form being dual of an unused singular; from an unused root meaning to be lofty
After the etymology, the actual definition is given usually including the various senses of the word in different contexts and usages: The sky (as aloft; the dual perhaps alluding to the visible arch in which the clouds move, as well as to the higher ether where the celestial bodies revolve):-
After the symbol “:-” appears, is the listing of the English words the KJV translators used when translating the original language word: air, X astrologer, heaven (-s).

Some Strong abbreviations:
"X" is used to describe situations where the word in question appears with another word or in a repeated phrase which multiples the original meaning of the associated word. For example, in Acts 5:42, the word for all/every (pas, Strong's G3956) appears with the word for "day" (hemera) resulting in the idea of "every day" or "each day" which results in the English translation "daily." Hence, the Strong's entry "X daily" means that when pas is combined with the word for "day" it multiplies the idea of "day" to denote "daily" (over and over, day by day).

The plus symbol "+" is used to describe ways in which the original language word is combined with one or more additional original language words to form a related, but different concept or thought. For example, the Strong's entry for pas (G3956) includes “no(-thing)" which means that when pas (all/every) is combined with the Greek word for "no" the resulting idea conveyed may by "nothing" (the negation of "all" or "everything"). The Strong's entry for phroneo (G5426) includes "(be like-, + be of one, + be of the same, + let this) mind(-ed)". What this is saying is that when the word phroneo appears with the Greek words for "be like," "be of one," "be of the same," or "let this," the resulting idea being conveyed by the combined phrase is "be like minded," be of one mind", "be of the same mind," or "let this mind." So the basic meaning of phroneo is "to exercise the mind" but when combined with other Greek words the meaning is altered in subtle ways. When reading the Strong's definition, imagine inserting the key word ahead of each occurrence of "+" as in: "[phroneo] + be of one" = "be of one mind."

For more information about how to read Strong's and how to use the abbreviations click HERE.

So our first word was "heavens" - H8064
שׁמה / שׁמים
shâmayim, shâmeh
shaw-mah'-yim, shaw-meh'
The second form being dual of an unused singular; from an unused root meaning to be lofty; the sky (as aloft; the dual perhaps alluding to the visible arch in which the clouds move, as well as to the higher ether where the celestial bodies revolve): - air, X astrologer, heaven (-s).
Total occurrences in KJV: 421

I also look at Brown-Driver-Brigg's Hebrew Definitions:
heavens
H8064
שׁמה / שׁמים
shâmayim / shâmeh
BDB Definition:
1) heaven, heavens, sky
..1a) visible heavens, sky
....1a1) as abode of the stars
....1a2) as the visible universe, the sky, atmosphere, etc
..1b) Heaven (as the abode of God)
Part of Speech: noun masculine
A Related Word by BDB/Strong’s Number: from an unused root meaning to be lofty

B.D.B.'s is just for the Old Testament as it gives "Hebrew Definitions". For another source for the New Testament, you can use Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words. It rounds out and gives a little more meaning to the Greek words like B.D.B's did for the Hebrew words.

It's really simpler than it sounds. You look up the word, find the number, go to the Hebrew or Greek Concordance and see what you can get from the different shades of meaning. Sometimes it's really nothing new and sometimes it really gives you a whole new way of looking at things. If you aren't satisfied with what you glean from Strong's check Brown-Driver-Brigg's Hebrew Definitions or Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words

And don't think you have to spend a fortune on study books. I did that long ago and I used them but with the computers and smart phones and tablets of today, you can get free Bible resources right online or with free apps. It takes a little finagling to figure out what you want and how to use it but that's the way it is for all new apps, web sites or ebooks. For your PC or laptop, look up E-sword.net. For Bible study web sites check out BibleGateway.com or BibleHub.com. Then if you want it for your tablet or smart phone, go to your apps store and search for Bibles, Bible study, Strong's, Vine's, Commentaries, Bible Dictionaries, etc. They are all FREE! It's just a matter of learning how to use them just like you learned how to use other apps, web sites and programs. It can be done, free and easy enough. We are educated and able to read, we have the tools and resources easy to hand and free for our use. If you figured out how to use Amazon, Ebay, Etsy, Pinterest... you can figure out how to use these Bible study resources.

Now let's continue with our word study of Psalm 89:5-8. Our next word was "praise". Let's look it up in Strong's first.
praise
H3034
יָדָה
yâdâh
yaw-daw'
A primitive root; used only as denominative from H3027; literally to use (that is, hold out) the hand; physically to throw (a stone, an arrow) at or away; especially to revere or worship (with extended hands); intensively to bemoan (by wringing the hands): - cast (out), (make) confess (-ion), praise, shoot, (give) thank (-ful, -s, -sgiving).
Total KJV occurrences: 114

Brown-Driver-Brigg's Hebrew Definitions:
praise
H3034
ידה
yâdâh
BDB Definition:
1) to throw, shoot, cast
..1a) (Qal) to shoot (arrows)
..1b) (Piel) to cast, cast down, throw down
..1c) (Hiphil)
....1c1) to give thanks,, laud, praise
....1c2) to confess, confess (the name of God)
..1d) (Hithpael)
....1d1) to confess (sin)
....1d2) to give thanks
Part of Speech: verb
A Related Word by BDB/Strong’s Number: a primitive root; used only as denominative from H3027

Next word is "wonders".

Strong's
wonders
H6382
פֶּלֶא
pele'
peh'-leh
From H6381; a miracle: - marvellous thing, wonder (-ful, -fully).
Total KJV occurrences: 13

BDB
wonders
H6382
פּלא
pele'
BDB Definition:
1) wonder, marvel
..1a) wonder (extraordinary, hard to understand thing)
..1b) wonder (of God’s acts of judgment and redemption)
Part of Speech: noun masculine
A Related Word by BDB/Strong’s Number: from H6381

Strong's
Lord
H3068
יְהֹוָה
yehôvâh
yeh-ho-vaw'
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God: - Jehovah, the Lord.
Compare H3050, H3069.
Total KJV occurrences: 6521

Lord
H3068
יהוה
yehôvâh
BDB Definition:
Jehovah = “the existing One”
1) the proper name of the one true God
..1a) unpronounced except with the vowel pointings of H136
Part of Speech: noun proper deity
A Related Word by BDB/Strong’s Number: from H1961

Strong's
faithfulness
H530
אֱמֻנָה אֱמוּנָה
'ĕmûnâh, 'ĕmûnâh
em-oo-naw', em-oo-naw'
Feminine of H529; literally firmness; figuratively security; moral fidelity: - faith (-ful, -ly, -ness, [man]), set office, stability, steady, truly, truth, verily.
Total KJV occurrences: 49

BDB
H530
אמנה / אמוּנה
'ĕmûnâh
BDB Definition:
1) firmness, fidelity, steadfastness, steadiness
Part of Speech: noun feminine
A Related Word by BDB/Strong’s Number: from H529

Strong's
congregation
H6951
קָהָל
qâhâl
kaw-hawl
From H6950; assemblage (usually concretely): - assembly, company, congregation, multitude.
Total KJV occurrences: 123

BDB
congregation
H6951
קהל
qâhâl
BDB Definition:
1) assembly, company, congregation, convocation
..1a) assembly
....1a1) for evil counsel, war or invasion, religious purposes
..1b) company (of returning exiles)
..1c) congregation
....1c1) as organised body
Part of Speech: noun masculine
A Related Word by BDB/Strong’s Number: from H6950

Strong's
saints
H6918
קָדֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ
qâdôsh, qâdôsh
kaw-doshe', kaw-doshe'
From H6942; sacred (ceremonially or morally); (as noun) God (by eminence), an angel, a saint, a sanctuary: - holy (One), saint.
Total KJV occurrences: 116

BDB
saints
H6918
קדשׁ / קדושׁ
qâdôsh
BDB Definition:
1) sacred, holy, Holy One, saint, set apart
Part of Speech: adjective
A Related Word by BDB/Strong’s Number: from H6942

Now let's see how other Bible versions translated this one verse:

New International Version
The heavens praise your wonders, LORD, your faithfulness too, in the assembly of the holy ones.

New Living Translation
All heaven will praise your great wonders, LORD; myriads of angels will praise you for your faithfulness.

English Standard Version
Let the heavens praise your wonders, O LORD, your faithfulness in the assembly of the holy ones!

New American Standard Bible
The heavens will praise Your wonders, O LORD; Your faithfulness also in the assembly of the holy ones.

King James Bible
And the heavens shall praise thy wonders, O LORD: thy faithfulness also in the congregation of the saints.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
LORD, the heavens praise Your wonders-- Your faithfulness also-- in the assembly of the holy ones.

International Standard Version
Even the heavens praise your awesome deeds, LORD, your faithfulness in the assembly of the holy ones.

New American Standard 1977
And the heavens will praise Thy wonders, O LORD;
Thy faithfulness also in the assembly of the holy ones.

Jubilee Bible 2000
And the heavens shall praise thy wonder, O LORD, thy truth also in the congregation of the saints.

King James 2000 Bible
And the heavens shall praise your wonders, O LORD: your faithfulness also in the congregation of the saints.

American King James Version
And the heavens shall praise your wonders, O LORD: your faithfulness also in the congregation of the saints.

American Standard Version
And the heavens shall praise thy wonders, O Jehovah; Thy faithfulness also in the assembly of the holy ones.

Douay-Rheims Bible
The heavens shall confess thy wonders, O Lord: and thy truth in the church of the saints.


Let's look at it in the context of all 4 verses, Psalm 89:5-8, in the various translations:

New International Version
5 The heavens praise your wonders, Lord,
your faithfulness too, in the assembly of the holy ones.
6 For who in the skies above can compare with the Lord?
Who is like the Lord among the heavenly beings?
7 In the council of the holy ones God is greatly feared;
he is more awesome than all who surround him.
8 Who is like you, Lord God Almighty?
You, Lord, are mighty, and your faithfulness surrounds you.

New Living Translation
5 All heaven will praise your great wonders, LORD;
myriads of angels will praise you for your faithfulness.
6 For who in all of heaven can compare with the LORD?
What mightiest angel is anything like the LORD?
7 The highest angelic powers stand in awe of God.
He is far more awesome than all who surround his throne.
8 O LORD God of Heaven’s Armies!
Where is there anyone as mighty as you, O LORD?
You are entirely faithful.

English Standard Version
5 Let the heavens praise your wonders, O LORD,
your faithfulness in the assembly of the holy ones!
6 For who in the skies can be compared to the LORD?
Who among the heavenly beingsb is like the LORD,
7 a God greatly to be feared in the council of the holy ones,
and awesome above all who are around him?
8 O LORD God of hosts,
who is mighty as you are, O LORD,
with your faithfulness all around you?

New American Standard
5 The heavens will praise Your wonders, O LORD;
Your faithfulness also in the assembly of the holy ones.
6 For who in the skies is comparable to the LORD?
Who among the sons of the mighty is like the LORD,
7 A God greatly feared in the council of the holy ones,
And awesome above all those who are around Him?
8 O LORD God of hosts, who is like You, O mighty LORD?
Your faithfulness also surrounds You.

King James Version
5 And the heavens shall praise thy wonders, O Lord: thy faithfulness also in the congregation of the saints.
6 For who in the heaven can be compared unto the Lord? who among the sons of the mighty can be likened unto the Lord?
7 God is greatly to be feared in the assembly of the saints, and to be had in reverence of all them that are about him.
8 O Lord God of hosts, who is a strong Lord like unto thee? or to thy faithfulness round about thee?

Holman Christian Standard
5 LORD, the heavens praise Your wonders —
Your faithfulness also —
in the assembly of the holy ones.
6 For who in the skies can compare with the LORD?
Who among the heavenly beings is like the LORD?
7 God is greatly feared in the council of the holy ones,
more awe-inspiring than all who surround Him.
8 LORD God of Hosts, who is strong like You, LORD?
Your faithfulness surrounds You.

Douay Rheims Bible
5 The heavens shall confess thy wonders, O Lord: and thy truth in the church of the saints.
6 For who in the clouds can be compared to the Lord: or who among the sons of God shall be like to God?
7 God, who is glorified in the assembly of the saints: great and terrible above all them that are about him.
8 O Lord God of hosts, who is like to thee? thou art mighty, O Lord, and thy truth is round about thee.

When I read it the first time, I was seeing it as the heavens, the stars, the planets, sun and moon were evidence of God's glory and no man, no matter how strong, courageous, powerful, famous, rich he is, comes anywhere close to God. Christians will be awed and will reverence Him.

All that is true. But there was more there than I knew. These verses speak of the “assembly” and “council” of the angels. God created everything, including the universe and including these supernatural Angels. No one and nothing can compare to the Lord! He is held in awe and reverence by us, by His creation, by those angelic beings. When I started to meditate on what I learned it was amazing. He created these angelic beings. They are so magnificent that every human who comes in contact with them are awe struck and afraid.,,

Judges 6:21-23 (Amp) Then the Angel of the Lord put out the end of the staff that was in His hand and touched the meat and the unleavened bread; and fire flared up from the rock and consumed the meat and the unleavened bread. Then the Angel of the Lord vanished from his sight. 22 When Gideon realized [without any doubt] that He was the Angel of the Lord, he declared, “Oh no, Lord God! For now I have seen the Angel of the Lord face to face [and I am doomed]!” 23 The Lord said to him, “Peace to you, do not be afraid; you shall not die.”

Luke 1:8-13 (Common English Bible - CEB) 8 One day Zechariah was serving as a priest before God because his priestly division was on duty. 9 Following the customs of priestly service, he was chosen by lottery to go into the Lord’s sanctuary and burn incense. 10 All the people who gathered to worship were praying outside during this hour of incense offering. 11 An angel from the Lord appeared to him, standing to the right of the altar of incense. 12 When Zechariah saw the angel, he was startled and overcome with fear. 13 The angel said, “Don’t be afraid, Zechariah. Your prayers have been heard.

Seeing an Angel strikes fear in our hearts! And yet, God didn't send Jesus to save them, He sent His Son to save us!?!


**********************

Did you know that one of the highest of the created Angels fell? Satan was an Angel of the highest order and yet he got full of pride and wanted to be God and he managed to talk 1/3 of the angels into following him. God judged them and cast them down from heaven and their end is prophesied


Isaiah 14:4-32 (Modern King James Version - MKJV) you shall take up this song against the king of Babylon and say, How the exacter, the gold gatherer has ceased! (5) Jehovah has broken the staff of the wicked, the scepter of the rulers (6) who struck peoples in wrath, a blow without turning away, ruling the nations in anger, a persecution without restraint. (7) All the earth is at rest and is quiet; they break out into singing. (8) Yea, the fir trees rejoice at you, the cedars of Lebanon, saying, Since you have fallen, no woodcutter will come up against us. (9) Hell from below is moved for you, to meet you at your coming. It stirs up the dead for you, all the he-goats of the earth. It has raised from their thrones all the kings of the nations. (10) All of them shall speak and say to you, Are you also as weak as we? Are you like us? (11) Your pride is brought down to the grave, and the noise of your harps. The maggot is spread under you, and the worms cover you. (12) How you are fallen from the heavens, O shining star, son of the morning! How you are cut down to the ground, you who weakened the nations! (13) For you have said in your heart, I will go up to the heavens, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God; I will also sit on the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north. (14) I will go up above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the Most High. (15) Yet you shall be brought down to hell, to the sides of the Pit. (16) Those who see you shall stare and closely watch you, saying, Is this the man who made the earth to tremble; who shook kingdoms; (17) who made the world as a wilderness, and destroyed its cities; who did not open the house for his prisoners? (18) All the kings of the nations, even all of them, lie in glory, every one in his own house. (19) But you are cast out of your grave like a hateful branch, and like the clothing of those who are slain, thrust through with a sword, that go down to the stones of the pit; like a dead body trampled under foot. (20) You shall not be joined with them in burial, because you ruined your land and killed your people; the seed of evildoers shall never be famous. (21) Prepare slaughter for his sons, because of the iniquity of their fathers, so that they do not rise, nor possess the land, nor fill the face of the world with cities. (22) For I will rise up against them, says Jehovah of Hosts, and cut off from Babylon the name and remnant, and son, and grandson, says Jehovah. (23) I will also make it a possession of the hedgehog, and pools of water; and I will sweep it with the broom of ruin, says Jehovah of Hosts. (24) Jehovah of Hosts has sworn, saying, Surely as I have thought, so it shall come to pass; and as I have purposed, it shall stand; (25) to break Assyria in My land, and on My mountains, trample him under foot. Then his yoke shall be removed from them, and his burden shall be taken off their shoulders. (26) This is the purpose that is purposed on all the earth; and this is the hand that is stretched out on all the nations. (27) For Jehovah of Hosts has purposed, and who shall reverse it? And His hand is stretched out, and who shall turn it back?

Assyria has fallen, but Babylon has taken her place. This double prophecy is against the City of Babylon and the Tyrant of Babylon. The same cruelty and covetousness has only entered a new body. The only change is that wealth and materialism is used with brutality and military victory. The pride, selfshness and atheism is the same. Babylon, is used throughout the Bible from Genesis to Revelation as a symbol of the enemy of God and the stronghold of darkness. Babylon represents civilisation and the world’s pride and enmity to God. There was a real Babylon and it had very real Babylonian leaders. So the prophecy was fulfilled on this world. But it also has another meaning. It tells of satan and his history and his future. Arrogance, pride, selfishness, and cruelty were the hallmarks of Babylon and it's tyrant. It is also the description of satan and his attempt to take over. But God has the power, not satan, and the fate of satan is one of horror. This next scripture is another double prophecy. The ruler of Tyre was real, but he also symbolized satan. In fact, satan is more real than the King of Tyre.

Ezekiel 28:1-19 (MKJV) The Word of Jehovah came again to me, saying, (2) Son of man, say to the ruler of Tyre. So says the Lord Jehovah: Because your heart is lifted up, and you have said, I am a god, I sit in the seat of God, in the midst of the seas; yet you are a man and not God, though you set your heart as the heart of gods; (3) Behold, you are wiser than Daniel; all secret things are not hidden from you! (4) With your wisdom and with your understanding you have made riches for yourselves, and have worked gold and silver into your treasuries. (5) By your great wisdom and by your trade you have multiplied your riches, and your heart is lifted up because of your riches. (6) Therefore so says the Lord Jehovah: Because you have set your heart as the heart of gods, (7) behold, therefore I will bring awesome strangers of the nations. And they shall draw their swords against the beauty of your wisdom, and they shall defile your brightness. (8) They shall bring you down to the Pit, and you shall die the deaths of those slain in the heart of the seas. (9) Will you yet say before him who kills you, I am of the gods? But you are a man, and not God, in the hand of him who kills you. (10) You shall die the deaths of the uncircumcised by the hand of strangers. For I have spoken, says the Lord Jehovah. (11) And the Word of Jehovah came to me, saying, (12) Son of man, lift up a lament over the king of Tyre, and say to him, So says the Lord Jehovah: You seal the measure, full of wisdom and perfect in beauty. (13) You have been in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone was your covering, the ruby, topaz, and the diamond, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the turquoise, and the emerald, and gold. The workmanship of your tambourines and of your flutes was prepared in you in the day that you were created. (14) You were the anointed cherub that covers, and I had put you in the holy height of God where you were; you have walked up and down in the midst of the stones of fire. (15) You were perfect in your ways from the day that you were created, until iniquity was found in you. (16) By the multitude of your goods they have filled your midst with violence, and you have sinned. So I cast you profaned from the height of God, and I destroy you, O covering cherub, from among the stones of fire. (17) Your heart was lifted up because of your beauty; you have spoiled your wisdom because of your brightness. I will cast you to the ground; I will put you before kings, that they may behold you. (18) By the host of your iniquities, by the iniquity of your trade, you have profaned your holy places; so I brought a fire from your midst; it shall devour you, and I will give you for ashes on the earth, before the eyes of all who see you. (19) All who know you among the peoples shall be astonished at you; you shall be terrors, and you will not be forever.

When you read those two paragraphs, you realize that satan was an Angel, one of the highest in the hierarchy of the Angels. He was created to be beautiful and was one of those around the throne of God, one of those who continually praised God and yet, his desire to be god overcame him. His heart became full of lust, pride and covetousness. He was thrown from heaven by God to earth. "The darkness of this world" (Ephesians 6:12) is their chain. They are free now to tempt and hurt only to the length of their chain. Like a dog on a chain, their range is limited by the One who holds the chain. He is confined to this world and only for a limited time. He and his anarchic angels are doomed for final and utter destruction. His bondage and destruction is constant and progressive until his end is final!
Paul Fryer's Morning Star

Jude 1:6 (International Standard Version - ISV) He has also held in eternal chains those angels who did not keep their own position but abandoned their assigned place. They are held in deepest darkness for judgment on the great day.

2 Peter 2:4 (ERV) When angels sinned, God did not let them go free without punishment. He sent them to hell. He put those angels in caves of darkness, where they are being held until the time when God will judge them.

Hebrews 2:2 (CEV) The message spoken by angels proved to be true, and all who disobeyed or rejected it were punished as they deserved.

This is satan's final end:

Revelation 20:10 (MKJV) And the Devil who deceived them was cast into the Lake of Fire and Brimstone, where the beast and the false prophet were. And he will be tormented day and night forever and ever.


**********************

Reading about the history and future of satan, as one of the highest angels, tells us something. These magnificent beings were created by God and those angels that rebelled, have been dealt with in the most severe way. God created Adam and Eve, human beings. They were created perfect and immortal. Satan tempted them and they fell into the same sin that he had fallen into. With the sin came the consequences of sin, death. These parents of ours, shared their sinful DNA with every human born after them. We are born with sin and we sin continually. We deserve the same eternal punishment that satan and his band of demonic angels got.

But God did not leave us in our sin. He sent His very own Son, Jesus Christ, to save us from our sins and to restore our spirit so that we could live forever with God in Heaven. We still live among the consequences of sin and this fallen world, but our eternity is no longer eternal damnation and we are no longer cut off from God!!!

Are you starting to catch what I'm saying!?!

Hebrews 2:16 (CEV) Jesus clearly did not come to help angels, but he did come to help Abraham's descendants.

1 Peter 1:12 (CEV) But they were told that they were serving you and not themselves. They preached to you by the power of the Holy Spirit, who was sent from heaven. And their message was only for you, even though angels would like to know more about it.

Angels exist. According to the Bible, they exist in no uncertain terms. Their magnificence terrifies us when we see them! But they aren't the ones God sent His Son to save! We are!!!! Who do we owe our love? Not Angels, but God! Who do we owe our allegiance? Not Angels, but God! Who do we owe our praise and worship? Not Angels, but God!


If it blows your mind, join me! I have no idea why we seem to be so precious to God. But am I thankful? Oh yes, you'd better believe it! When I start thinking about how much He loves us, how much He has done for us... I have to praise Him! He became personally involved in order to save as many of us as will accept His free offer of salvation. It COST Him and He had to do it. Nothing we do would have saved us so it was ALL Him! That kind of love and grace is beyond our comprehension but I'm so thankful and I love Him.


My Most Popular Posts

Total Pageviews

Contact Me

To contact me, email me at Mom25dogs@gmail.com